The process of modifying matter at a size close to the atomic level to create novel structures, materials, and gadgets is known as nanotechnology. Nanotechnology offers advances in science across a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, consumer goods, energy, and medical. We refer to engineered systems, devices, and structures as nanotechnology. Materials at the nanoscale range from 1 to 100 nanometers and exhibit distinctive characteristics that influence their behavior in terms of physics, chemistry, and biology. Investigating, developing, and applying these features forms the core of new technology.
A centimeter is one hundredth of a meter, a millimeter is one thousandth of a meter, and a micrometer is one millionth of a meter, all of which are larger than the nanoscale. On the other hand, a nanometer (nm) is one billionth of a meter, a hundred thousandth of the breadth of a human hair, and smaller than the wavelength of visible light [source: Berkeley Lab]. The ability of materials’ properties to vary at the nanoscale lies at the heart of nanotechnology for two primary reasons. Firstly, nanoparticles have a considerably larger surface area compared to the same mass of material generated in a bigger form. This may alter the strength or electrical characteristics of the material and increase its chemical reactivity. In certain situations, materials that are inert in their larger form become reactive when created in their nanoscale form. Secondly, at the lower end of the nanoscale, so-called quantum effects can start to influence how matter behaves, thereby affecting how materials behave optically, electrically, and magnetically.
Nanotechnology also poses significant social considerations. Nanotechnology may enable us to develop more potent weapons, both deadly and non-lethal. Some groups are concerned that we may not have enough time to consider the moral ramifications of using nanotechnology in these weapons once they are developed. Therefore, they urge researchers and decision-makers to carefully consider all the implications of nanotechnology before creating ever-more-powerful weapons.
The field of nanotechnology is rapidly expanding. Scientists are discovering that atoms and molecules behave differently at the nanoscale, and both scientists and engineers are having great success in making materials at the nanoscale to take advantage of their enhanced properties. These properties include higher strength, lighter weight, increased electrical conductivity, and chemical reactivity compared to their larger-scale equivalents.
The nanotechnology is brimming with potential both positively and negatively. Nanotechnology can be used in different fields to ease the lives of the people by making things efficient, compact and could possibly lead to a breakthrough. Unfortunately, not everything about nanotechnology is good. By making things efficient some people will lose their jobs. The nanoparticles created may pose a problem to the people and environment. Lastly, weapons will cause more havoc. Someday, this technology will benefit many people if used right so a proper regulation is required. As the saying goes, ‘nothing ventured, nothing gained’.